来源 ：中国TOP3的留学咨询机构 2019-11-14 10:10:20|2016年108期三行中特
LONDON — Facebook identified two disinformation campaigns originating from Russia — including one tied to an agency controlled by the Kremlin — that were targeted at users in Europe and Central Asia. The company said on Thursday it had deleted nearly 500 pages and accounts that had posted the misleading messages.
Many of the pages were discovered to be linked to employees of Sputnik, an agency controlled by the Russian government that was established to spread reports and information sympathetic to Russia. It used independent news pages on topics like weather, travel and sports to mask its efforts, Facebook said.
The company has been under pressure to more aggressively address the spread of misinformation, and to counter manipulation on its social network that is aimed at stirring division and discord, ever since it became evident that Russia used it to target groups of voters, sow division and spread false information in order to sway the 2016 presidential election. Mark Zuckerberg, Facebook’s chief executive, has said the detection of suspicious activity is a top priority.
But on a platform of two billion users, disinformation campaigns are hard to detect, and Facebook remains a gathering ground for groups eager to spread disinformation to the widest audience possible.
The activity revealed by Facebook shows how Kremlin-linked groups continue to use the social network to spread misleading materials around the world. Several of the countries targeted share a border with Russia.
“We are constantly working to detect and stop this type of activity because we don’t want our services to be used to manipulate people,” Nathaniel Gleicher, head of cybersecurity policy at Facebook, said in a blog post.
The discovery provides another glimpse of the manipulative tactics used by groups to promote their articles, videos, groups and other content on Facebook. Fake accounts were created in different countries with the sole purpose of sharing content from Sputnik.
Facebook said one of the campaigns had targeted people in 13 countries in Eastern Europe and Central Asia. Facebook deleted 289 pages and 75 accounts linked to that effort, which also spent about 5,000 on Facebook advertising from 2013 to this month.
About 790,000 users followed one or more of the pages, and up to 1,200 people expressed interest in attending one of the roughly 190 events organized by those behind the fake pages. Facebook couldn’t say whether any of the events had taken place.
The company said the misleading content aimed to influence people in Armenia, Azerbaijan, Estonia, Georgia, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Latvia, Lithuania, Moldova, Romania, Russia, Tajikistan and Uzbekistan.
Facebook said it had shared information about the investigation with United States authorities, Congress, other technology companies and policymakers in the targeted countries.
Ben Nimmo, a research fellow at the Atlantic Council, a Washington think tank that analyzes misinformation online, said Facebook’s decision to block Sputnik-linked accounts was significant because of the agency’s direct ties to the Kremlin.
“This is the first time we’ve seen a takedown of this scale linked directly to the national propaganda channel,” said Mr. Nimmo, who was part of a group at the Atlantic Council’s Digital Forensic Research Lab that had been investigating the Russian campaign separately from Facebook. “This is the first time we’ve had something that was so directly traced back to Sputnik itself.”
In Moscow, Sputnik accused Facebook of “censorship,” saying that the platform had blocked seven pages that belonged to newsrooms in different countries and calling the decision “political,” according to an article by RIA Novosti, another branch of Russia’s propaganda apparatus.
“Sputnik is dealing with news,” the organization said. “If blocking is the only reaction Facebook can come up with in response to the quality work of news media, then we have no further questions.”
The statement also said Sputnik hoped that “common sense will prevail.”
The Atlantic Council said the pages were a covert attempt to amplify messages from Sputnik, a division of the Kremlin’s media agency, Rossiya Segodnya. All told, the inauthentic network helped Sputnik raise its reach in the countries covered by more than 170 percent, according to the Atlantic Council.
Much of the posted material was innocuous content about weather, fashion and local celebrities, but some presented negative views toward NATO and the treatment of ethnic Russians in Baltic countries. Most of the pages didn’t mention a connection with Rossiya Segodnya or Sputnik.
“This therefore appears to have been an attempt to audience build and draw users’ attention to Sputnik as a media brand rather than to manipulate them with Russian political or geopolitical messaging,” the Atlantic Council’s Digital Forensic Research Lab said in a report published separately from Facebook.
The work appeared to be coordinated. On a single day in October 2017, the Atlantic Council said, inauthentic pages seeking to spread Sputnik content were created to focus on Armenia, Chechnya, Estonia, Georgia, Latvia, Lithuania, Kyrgyzstan and Tajikistan. At other points, fan pages purporting to support the presidents of Uzbekistan and Tajikistan were created, but they were actually run from Russia.
Facebook also identified a separate effort, discovered after a tip from United States law enforcement authorities, aimed at users in Ukraine, a frequent target of Moscow misinformation campaigns over the four-year confrontation between the two neighboring countries.
The tactics used by those behind the Ukraine-targeted accounts were similar to the misinformation efforts conducted by Russia’s Internet Research Agency during the campaign for the recent midterm elections in the United States, Facebook said.
The effort included 107 Facebook pages, groups and accounts, as well as 41 Instagram accounts.
“The people behind this activity coordinated with one another and used fake accounts to misrepresent themselves, and that was the basis for our action,” Mr. Gleicher said of the shutdowns.
Facebook has discovered several coordinated misinformation campaigns since the 2016 presidential election, when Russia-linked groups used the social network to reach 126 million users.
In November, Facebook said it had blocked more than 100 Facebook and Instagram posts over concern they were linked to the Internet Research Agency. In August, Facebook also removed 652 fake accounts, pages and groups originating in Russia and Iran that were trying to spread misinformation.
The actions are a shift from when Facebook was widely criticized for failing to detect Russian interference. Facebook executives have said the company is making progress, but also warn of a protracted and challenging battle as groups become more sophisticated at avoiding detection.
“Get used to this,” Mr. Nimmo said. “It’s not just Facebook. It’s going to be all the platforms. This is the new normal.”B:
2016年108期三行中特“【领】【袖】，【这】【个】【号】【码】【一】【致】【在】【试】【图】【联】【系】【您】，【让】【我】【给】【拦】【截】【了】，【会】【不】【会】【有】【问】【题】……” 【在】【洛】【漓】【锲】【而】【不】【舍】【联】【系】【了】【几】【十】【次】【后】，【终】【端】【的】【机】【器】【人】【察】【觉】【端】【倪】，【主】【动】【将】【这】【件】【事】【上】【报】【给】【了】【苏】【泽】。 【而】【苏】【泽】【已】【经】【整】【整】【三】【天】【没】【有】【合】【过】【眼】【了】。 【身】【体】【很】【疲】【惫】。 【可】【每】【当】【他】【一】【闭】【上】【眼】，【就】【会】【浮】【现】【白】【洛】【漓】【被】【于】【唯】【霆】【压】【住】【为】【所】【欲】【为】【的】【画】【面】。 【心】【中】【的】
【在】【离】【开】【了】【秘】【境】【之】【后】，【洛】【尘】【骑】【着】【阿】【勃】【梭】【鲁】【回】【到】【了】【精】【灵】【学】【院】。 【或】【许】【是】【因】【为】【新】【的】【一】【个】【月】【的】【排】【位】【战】【马】【上】【就】【要】【开】【始】【了】【的】【原】【因】，【学】【院】【训】【练】【场】【上】【的】【人】【明】【显】【变】【多】【了】【非】【常】【多】。 【洛】【尘】【在】【回】【到】【学】【校】【的】【第】【一】【时】【间】【也】【是】【来】【到】【了】【训】【练】【场】，【随】【后】【也】【是】【用】【资】【源】【点】【开】【了】【一】【间】【训】【练】【室】。 【这】【一】【次】【他】【离】【开】【秘】【境】，【除】【了】【从】【古】【会】【长】【那】【里】【得】【到】【了】【这】【个】【月】【份】【的】【资】【源】
【珈】【蓝】【一】【帮】【人】【谁】【也】【没】【想】【到】【他】【们】【来】【叶】【飞】【这】【里】【竟】【然】【会】【要】【面】【临】【着】【这】【样】【的】【场】【面】。 【他】【们】【本】【来】【到】【这】【里】【的】【目】【的】【是】【帮】【助】【叶】【飞】【盯】【住】【凉】【冰】【呢】，【结】【果】【现】【在】【凉】【冰】【和】【凯】【莎】【女】【王】【倒】【是】【没】【多】【大】【的】【问】【题】，【第】【五】【宇】【宙】【的】【人】【跳】【出】【来】【了】，【到】【这】【里】【之】【后】【二】【话】【不】【说】【直】【接】【五】【颜】【六】【色】【的】【攻】【击】【就】【过】【来】【了】。 【你】【说】【那】【有】【这】【么】【办】【事】【的】，【一】【点】【招】【呼】【都】【不】【打】【啊】，【上】【来】【就】【干】。 【叶】【飞】
【这】【话】【若】【是】【换】【成】【旁】【人】【来】【说】，【叶】【烬】【欢】【定】【会】【当】【即】【翻】【脸】，【可】【偏】【偏】【白】【承】【司】【是】【用】【了】【一】【种】【极】【为】【认】【真】【的】【语】【气】【问】【的】，【不】【知】【怎】【的】【叶】【烬】【欢】【就】【是】【气】【不】【起】【来】。 【叶】【烬】【欢】【回】【想】【着】【今】【早】【发】【生】【的】【事】，【更】【是】【气】【不】【打】【一】【处】【来】，【她】【一】【脸】【无】【奈】【道】：“【你】【爱】【来】【就】【来】【吧】，【这】【凤】【栖】【宫】【你】【就】【跟】【穿】【梭】【自】【如】【似】【的】。” 【说】【到】【这】，【白】【承】【司】【对】【着】【叶】【烬】【欢】【翻】【了】【个】【白】【眼】，“【不】【知】【道】【是】【谁】【家】
“【怎】……【怎】【么】【会】【这】【样】【啊】？【我】【还】【不】【想】【死】【啊】，【谁】【来】【救】【救】【我】【啊】！！” 【秦】【仙】【儿】【声】【音】【中】【带】【上】【了】【一】【丝】【哭】【腔】，【神】【情】【布】【满】【恐】【惧】【的】【看】【着】【这】【一】【切】。 【突】【然】，【拖】【着】【她】【的】【那】【块】【板】【子】，【开】【始】【向】【下】【掉】【去】，【最】【后】【直】【直】【下】【去】【了】【五】【百】【米】【才】【堪】【堪】【停】【下】。 “【啊】【啊】【啊】【啊】【啊】【啊】【啊】【啊】【啊】！！！” 【秦】【仙】【儿】【留】【着】【眼】【泪】，【早】【已】【跪】【爬】【在】【板】【子】【上】，【将】【它】【死】【死】【的】【抓】【住】【了】。2016年108期三行中特【休】【息】【是】【没】【办】【法】【休】【息】【的】。 【这】【桩】【案】【子】【虽】【然】【完】【结】【了】，【但】【收】【尾】【工】【作】【还】【差】【许】【多】。 【毕】【竟】，【李】【瑞】【和】【许】【云】，【勾】【连】【出】【了】“【独】【品】”【犯】【罪】，【他】【们】【得】【联】【合】【缉】【毒】【大】【队】【一】【块】【儿】【把】【贩】【卖】【给】【许】【云】【和】【李】【瑞】【独】【品】【的】【那】【个】【团】【伙】【揪】【出】【来】，【再】【转】【交】【禁】【毒】【支】【队】。 【公】【安】【系】【统】【内】【的】【机】【构】【设】【置】【的】【还】【蛮】【复】【杂】【的】，【禁】【毒】【支】【队】【与】【刑】【侦】【支】【队】【平】【级】，【缉】【毒】【大】【队】【却】【又】【隶】【属】【刑】【侦】【支】【队】
“【是】【你】？【你】【还】【活】【着】！” 【尽】【管】【嘴】【巴】【被】【堵】【住】，【可】【初】【始】【者】【依】【旧】【透】【过】【精】【神】【与】【老】【朋】【友】【进】【行】【交】【谈】，【试】【图】【搞】【清】【楚】【眼】【下】【的】【状】【况】。 【确】【切】【的】【说】，【他】【想】【要】【在】【最】【短】【的】【时】【间】【内】【获】【取】【大】【量】【关】【于】【这】【个】【世】【界】【运】【行】【的】【规】【则】，【以】【及】【需】【要】【终】【点】【关】【注】【的】【事】【项】。 【可】【遗】【憾】【的】【是】【对】【方】【显】【然】【非】【常】【紧】【张】，【不】【仅】【灭】【有】【回】【答】【任】【何】【问】【题】【的】【意】【思】，【而】【且】【还】【严】【厉】【发】【出】【警】【告】：“【闭】
【诛】【仙】【出】【鞘】，【莫】【敢】【不】【从】！ 【这】【是】【当】【年】【曾】【经】【传】【唱】【天】【下】【的】【一】【句】【话】，【为】【了】【印】【证】【这】【句】【话】【的】【真】【实】，【魔】【道】【一】【方】【付】【出】【了】【血】【的】【代】【价】！ 【因】【此】【在】【道】【玄】【真】【人】【动】【用】【诛】【仙】【剑】【之】【时】，【哪】【怕】【是】【之】【前】【早】【就】【预】【料】【到】【自】【己】【可】【能】【会】【面】【对】【这】【柄】【青】【云】【门】【之】【中】【的】【传】【奇】【古】【剑】，【万】【人】【往】【的】【瞳】【孔】【还】【是】【不】【由】【微】【微】【一】【缩】，【手】【上】【的】【动】【作】【为】【之】【一】【定】！ “【诛】【仙】【剑】【吗】？【来】【得】【正】【好】！”【可】
【秦】【北】【洲】【受】【了】【委】【屈】，【陆】【景】【丞】【怎】【么】【可】【能】【坐】【视】【不】【理】，【那】【篇】【文】【章】【出】【来】【后】，【陆】【景】【丞】【就】【一】【直】【在】【针】【对】【那】【个】【杂】【志】【社】。【因】【为】【处】【处】【被】【陆】【氏】【集】【团】【打】【压】，【杂】【志】【社】【运】【营】【不】【下】【去】【了】，【苦】【苦】【挨】【了】【几】【个】【月】【后】，【就】【宣】【布】【破】【产】【了】。 【啊】【啊】【啊】，【写】【到】【这】【里】【我】【真】【的】【是】【太】【激】【动】【了】，【一】【想】【到】【后】【面】【他】【们】【分】【手】【了】，【再】【看】【这】【些】【撒】【糖】【的】【细】【节】，【就】【觉】【得】【好】【虐】【啊】！ 【好】，【我】【们】【继】【续】，